RUTX10 Routing

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Summary

This chapter is an overview of the Routing section in RUTX devices.

Static Routes

Static routes specify over which interface and gateway a certain host or network can be reached. In this page you can configure your own custom routes.

Static IPv4 Routes


Below is an example and information about Static IPv4 Routes.

FieldValueDescription
InterfaceDefault: lanThe zone where the target network resides
Target*IPv4; Default: 0.0.0.0The address of the destination network
Netmask*Default: 255.255.255.255A Mask that is applied to the Target to determine to what actual IP addresses the routing rule applies
GatewayIP; Default: 0.0.0.0Defines where the router should send all the traffic that applies to the rule
MetricDefault: 0The metric value is used as a sorting measure. If a packet about to be routed fits two rules, the one with the lower metric is applied.
MTU[64..9000]; Default: 1500Sets the maximum transmission unit (MTU) size. It is the largest size of a protocol data unit (PDU) that can be transmitted in a single network layer transaction.
Route TypeDefault: unicastSelects route type. Each type specifies a different behavior for the route, available options:
  • unicast
  • local - routes of this type are added to the 'local' routing table and used only for locally hosted IPs.
  • broadcast - routes of this type are added to the 'local' routing table and used by link layer devices that support the broadcast address principle.
  • multicast
  • unreachable
  • prohibit - used to prohibit traffic to specified host or network. When a destination is prohibited, the kernel sends a 'Network is unreachable' response the source address.
  • blackhole - packets that match this type of route are discarded without any response.
  • anycast -
  • -- custom -- -

*Additional notes on Target & Netmask:

You can define a rule that applies to a single IP like this:

  • Target: some IP
  • Netmask: 255.255.255.255

Furthermore, you can define a rules that apply to a range of IPs. Refer to the table below for examples.

TargetNetmaskDescription
192.168.2.0255.255.255.240Applies to IPs in the 192.168.2.0 - 192.168.2.15 range.
192.168.2.240255.255.255.240Applies to IPs in the 192.168.2.240 - 192.168.2.255 range.
192.168.2.161255.255.255.0Applies to IPs in the 192.168.2.0 - 192.168.55.255 range.
192.168.0.0255.255.0.0Applies to IPs in the 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255 range.
192.168.2.161255.255.255.255Only applies to 192.168.2.161.


Static IPv6 Routes


Settings for Static IPv6 routes are the same as for IPv4 only that the target IP and and gateway are different.


Advanced Static Routes

Advanced static routing includes features and concepts that are used in more complex networks.

Routing Tables


Below is an example of routing tables. You can create a new one by writing ID (anything you want, but only numbers are allowed), Name and pressing Add button. You can edit them by pressing Edit button

Routing Rules For IPv4


Below is an example of routing rules for IPv4. You can create a new rule by pressing Add button, also you can edit them by pressing Edit button.

An example of rule editing window and meanings of all the configurations are presented below.

field name value description
Priority Default: auto-assigned Controls the order of the IP rules, by default the priority is auto-assigned so that they are processed in the same order.
Incoming interface Default: Any Specifies the incoming logical interface name
Outgoing interface Default: None Specifies the outgoing logical interface name
Source subnetIPv4; Default: 0.0.0.0Specifies the source subnet to match (CIDR notation)
Destination subnetIPv4; Default: 0.0.0.0Specifies the destination subnet to match (CIDR notation)
TOS Value to MatchDefault: 0 Specifies the TOS value to match in IP headers
Firewall MarkDefault: 0xFF Specifies the fwmark and optionally its mask to match, e.g. 0xFF to match mark 255 or 0x0/0x1 to match any even mark value
Invert matchesoff | on; Default: off If enabled, the meaning of the match options (Firewall Mark, TOS Value, Source and Destination subnets) is inverted
Matched Traffic ActionDefault: Lookup Table Available options:
  • Lookup table
  • Jump to rule
  • Routing action
Lookup TableDefault: " " The rule target is a table lookup

Dynamic Routes

BGP Protocol


Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a standardized exterior gateway protocol designed to exchange routing and reachability information among autonomous systems (AS) on the Internet. The protocol is often classified as a path vector protocol but is sometimes also classed as a distance-vector routing protocol. The Border Gateway Protocol makes routing decisions based on paths, network policies, or rule-sets configured by a network administrator and is involved in making core routing decisions.

General Settings


Below is an example of BGP General settings section.


field name value description
Enable off | on; Default: off Toggles the BGP protocol ON or OFF
Enable vty off | on; Default: off Toggles vty access ON or OFF
Import config - Uploads an external BGP configuration

BGP Instance


Below is an example of BGP Instance settings section.


field name value description
Enable off | on; Default: off Toggles the BGP instance ON or OFF
AS Default: " " AS number is an identification of an autonomous system. BGP protocol uses the AS number for detecting whether the BGP connection is an internal one or external one. [Required]
BGP router ID Default: " " The router id is used by BGP to identify the routing device from which a packet originated. Default router ID value is selected as the largest IP Address of the interface.
Network Default: " " Add an announcement network(s)
Redistribution optionsDefault: " "Route redistribution is a process that allows a network to use a routing protocol to dynamically route traffic based on information learned from a different routing protocol. Available options:
  • Connected routes
  • Kernel added routes
  • NHRP routes
  • OSPF routes
  • Static routes
  • Custom
Deterministicoff | on; Default: off Compare MED between same AS ignoring their age

BGP Peers


Below is an example of BGP Peers section. You can create a new peer by pressing Add button.


field name value description
Enable off | on; Default: off Toggles the BGP peer ON or OFF
Remote AS Default: " " Neighbour's remote AS
Remote address IP; Default: " " Neighbour's remote IPv4 address

By pressing Edit button you can find more settings related to BGP Peer.


field name value description
Enable off | on; Default: off Toggles BGP Peer ON or OFF
Remote AS Default: " " Neighbour's remote AS
Remote address IP; Default: " " Neighbour's remote IPv4 address
Remote port Default: " " Neighbour's remote port
EBGP Multihop Default: " " Time to Live value
Default originateoff | on; Default: offAnnounce default routes to the peer
DescriptionDefault: " "You can leave notes here

BGP Peer Groups


Below is an example of BGP Peer Groups section. You can create a new group by writing a name and pressing Add button.

field name value description
Remote AS Default: " " Neighbour's remote AS

By pressing Edit button you can find more settings related to BGP Peer Groups.

field name value description
Enable off | on; Default: off Toggles the BGP Peer-Group ON or OFF
Remote AS Default: " " Neighbour's remote AS
Neighbor address IP; Default: " " Neighbour's remote IPv4 address
Advertisement intervalDefault: " "Delay between updates for a neighbor session
Neighbor configurationDefault: NoneConfigure a neighbor as Route Reflector or Route Server client. Available options:
  • None
  • Route Reflector client
  • Route Server client
Disable next hop calculationoff | on; Default: off Disable the next hop calculation for this group
Inbound soft-reconfigurationoff | on; Default: off Allow inbound soft reconfiguration for this neighbor
Disable connected checkoff | on; Default: off One-hop away EBGP peer using loopback address

Access List Filters


Below is an example of Access List Filters section. You can add a new list by simply pressing Add button.


field name value description
Enable off | on; Default: off Toggles the Access filter ON or OFF
Peer bgp peer; Default: first peer on list Applies the rule for the specified peer
Action Default: Permit Denies or permits matched entry. Available options:
  • Permit
  • Deny
Network Default: Any Applies filter rule for this source network. Available options:
  • Any
  • Custom (IP)
Direction Default: Inbound Available options:
  • Inbound
  • Outbund

If direction is Inbound, the access list is applied to input routes. If direction is Outbound the access list is applied to advertised routes

RIP Protocol


The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is one of the oldest distance-vector routing protocols which employ the hop count as a routing metric. RIP prevents routing loops by implementing a limit on the number of hops allowed in a path from source to destination. The maximum number of hops allowed for RIP is 15, which limits the size of networks that RIP can support. A hop count of 16 is considered an infinite distance and the route is considered unreachable. RIP implements the split horizon, route poisoning and holddown mechanisms to prevent incorrect routing information from being propagated.

General


Below is an example of RIP General settings section.


field name value description
Enable off | on; Default: off Toggles RIP Protocol ON or OFF
Enable vty off | on; Default: off Toggles vty access ON or OFF
Import config - Uses imported RIP configurations
Version Default: 2 Specifies the version of RIP. Available options:
  • 1
  • 2
Neighbor Default: " " Neighbour IP addres

RIP Interfaces


Below is an example of RIP Interfaces settings section.


field name value description
Enable off | on; Default: off Toggles RIP Interface ON or OFF
Interface network interfaces; Default: loopback Network interface to be used with the RIP interface
Passive interface off | on; Default: off Sets the specified interface to passive mode. On passive mode interface, all receiving packets are processed as normal and ripd does not send either multicast or unicast RIP packets

Access list filters


Below is an example of Access list filters settings section.


field name value description
Enable off | on; Default: off Toggles the Access filter ON or OFF
RIP interfaceRIP interface; Default: first interface on list Applies the rule for the specified interface
Action Default: Permit Available options:
  • Permit
  • Deny

Denies or permits matched entry

Network Default: Any Applies filter rule for this source network. Available options:
  • Any
  • Custom
Direction Default: Inbound Available options:
  • Inbound
  • Outbund

If direction is Inbound, the access list is applied to input routes. If direction is Outbound the access list is applied to advertised routes

OSPF Protocol


Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a routing protocol for Internet Protocol (IP) networks. It uses a link state routing (LSR) algorithm and falls into the group of interior gateway protocols (IGPs), operating within a single autonomous system (AS). It is defined as OSPF Version 2 in RFC 2328 for IPv4.

General Settings


Below is an example of OSPF General settings section.


field name value description
Enable off | on; Default: off Toggles OSPF Protocol ON or OFF
Enable vty off | on; Default: off Toggles vty access ON or OFF
Import - Uses imported OSPF configurations
Router ID Default: " " Sets the router-ID of the OSPF process. The router-ID may be an IP address of the router, but need not be - it can be any arbitrary 32bit number

OSPF Interface


Below is an example of OSPF Interface settings section.


field name value description
Enable off | on; Default: off Toggles OSPF area ON or OFF
Interface network interfaces; Default: loopback Network interface to be used with the RIP interface. Available options:

By pressing Edit button you can find more settings related to OSPF Interface.

field name value description
Enable off | on; Default: off Toggles OSPF area ON or OFF
CostDefault: " "The cost value is set to router-LSA’s metric field and used for SPF calculation
Hello IntervalDefault: 10This value controls how frequently (every n seconds) a 'Hello' packet is sent out on the specified interface
Router Dead IntervalDefault: 40This value must be the same for all routers attached to a common network
RetransmitDefault: 5This value is used when re-transmitting Database Description and Link State Request packets
PriorityDefault: 1The router with the highest priority will be more eligible to become Designated Router. Setting the value to 0, makes the router ineligible to become Designated Router
TypeDefault: " "You can choose different Type. Available options:
  • Broadcast
  • Nonbroadcast
  • Point-to-point
  • Point-to-multipoint
AuthenticationDefault: NoneYou can use different authentication methods. Available options:
  • None
  • Password
  • MD5 HMAC

OSPF Area


Below is an example of OSPF Area settings section.


field name value description
Enable off | on; Default: off Toggles OSPF area ON or OFF
Cost IP;Default: " " Specifies OSPF area

OSPF Networks


Below is an example of OSPF Networks settings section.


field name value description
Enable off | on; Default: off Toggles OSPF network ON or OFF
Network [a.b.c.d/m]; Default: " " This command specifies the OSPF enabled interface. If the interface has an address from the range a.b.c.d/m then enables OSPF on this interface so the router can provide network information to the other OSPF routers via this interface
Area OSPF area; Default: " " Specifies OSPF area

EIGRP Protocol


Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is an advanced distance-vector routing protocol that is used on a computer network for automating routing decisions and configuration.

General


Below is an example of EIGRP General settings section.

field name value description
Enable off | on; Default: off Toggles EIGRP network ON or OFF
Enable loggingoff | on; Default: offEnable logging of EIGRP
ASDefault: " "EIGRP uses this number so that it makes sure it only talks to other EIGRP speakers that are in the same AS. For instance, if you have two routers, one with "router eigrp 1" and one with "router eigrp 2," then they would not form an adjacency
Router IDIP; Default: " "EIGRP router-ID in IP address format
Network IP; Default: " " The announcement network
Redistribution optionsDefault: " " Route redistribution is a process that allows a network to use a routing protocol to dynamically route traffic based on information learned from a different routing protocol. Available options:
  • Connected routes
  • Kernel added routes
  • NHRP routes
  • OSPF routes
  • Static routes
  • Custom
Neighbors IP; Default: " " Neighbour IP addres

NHRP Protocol


Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP) is a protocol or method that can be used so that a computer sending data to another computer can learn the most direct route (the fewest number of hops) to the receiving computer.

General Settings


Below is an example of NHRP General settings section.


field name value description
Enable service off | on; Default: off Toggles NHRP network ON or OFF
Enable logging off | on; Default: off Toggles NHRP logging ON or OFF

Interfaces


Below is an example of NHRP Interface settings section.


field name value description
Enable off | on; Default: off Toggles interface ON or OFF

By pressing Edit button you can find more settings related to NHRP Interface.

field namevaluedescription
Enableoff | on; Default: offEnables DMVPN client
InterfaceDefault: br-lan Interface which will be using NHRP
Network IDDefault: " " Network ID of NHRP
NHSDefault: " " IP address of Next-Hop Server. Available options:
  • Dynamic
  • Custom
NBMADefault: " " Non-Broadcast Multi-Access(NBMA) network IP address
Hold-timeDefault: 7200 Specifies the holding time for NHRP Registration Requests and Resolution Replies sent from this interface or shortcut-target. The holdtime is specified in seconds and defaults to two hours.
IPsec supportoff | on; Default: off Use NHRP over IPsec
IP addressIP; Default: " " Network ID of NHRP
NBMAIP; Default: " " IP address of Next-Hop Server