Difference between revisions of "Template:Networking rutx manual routing"

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===Static IPv4 Routes===
 
===Static IPv4 Routes===
 
----
 
----
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Below is an example and information about Static IPv4 Routes.
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[[File:Networking_RUTX_manual_static_routes_ipv4_v1.png|alt=|border|left]]
  
Below is an example and information about Static IPv4 Routes.[[Image:Networking_RUTX_manual_static routes_ipv4_v1.png|border]]<table class="nd-mantable"><tr><th>Field</th><th>Value</th><th>Description</th></tr><tr><td>Interface</td><td>mobile | lan; default: <b>mobile</b></td><td>The zone where the target network resides</td></tr><tr><td>Target<span class="asterisk">*</span></td><td>ip4; default: <b>0.0.0.0</b></td><td>The address of the destination network</td></tr><tr><td>Netmask<span class="asterisk">*</span></td><td>netmask; default: <b>255.255.255.255</b></td><td>A Mask that is applied to the Target to determine to what actual IP addresses the routing rule applies</td></tr><tr><td>Gateway</td><td>ip; default: <b>none</b></td><td>Defines where the router should send all the traffic that applies to the rule</td></tr><tr><td>Metric</td><td>integer; default: <b>0</b></td><td>The <b>metric</b> value is used as a sorting measure. If a packet about to be routed fits two rules, the one with the lower metric is applied.</td></tr><tr><td>MTU</td><td>integer [64..9000]; default: <b>1500</b></td><td>Sets the maximum transmission unit (MTU) size. It is the largest size of a protocol data unit (PDU) that can be transmitted in a single network layer transaction.</td></tr><tr><td>Route Type</td><td>unicast | local | broadcast | multicast | unreachable | prohibit | backhole | anycast | -- custom -- ; default: <b>unicast</b></td><td>Selects route type. Each type specifies a different behavior for the route:<ul><li><b>unicast</b> -</li><li><b>local</b> - routes of this type are added to the 'local' routing table and used only for locally hosted IPs.</li><li><b>broadcast</b> - routes of this type are added to the 'local' routing table and used by link layer devices that support the broadcast address principle.</li><li><b>multicast</b> -</li><li><b>unreachable</b> -</li><li><b>prohibit</b> - used to prohibit traffic to specified host or network. When a destination is prohibited, the kernel sends a 'Network is unreachable' response the source address.</li><li><b>blackhole</b> - packets that match this type of route are discarded without any response.</li><li><b>anycast</b> -</li><li><b>-- custom --</b> -</li></ul></td></tr></table>
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<table class="nd-mantable"><tr><th>Field</th><th>Value</th><th>Description</th></tr><tr><td>Interface</td><td>mobile | lan; default: <b>mobile</b></td><td>The zone where the target network resides</td></tr><tr><td>Target<span class="asterisk">*</span></td><td>ip4; default: <b>0.0.0.0</b></td><td>The address of the destination network</td></tr><tr><td>Netmask<span class="asterisk">*</span></td><td>netmask; default: <b>255.255.255.255</b></td><td>A Mask that is applied to the Target to determine to what actual IP addresses the routing rule applies</td></tr><tr><td>Gateway</td><td>ip; default: <b>none</b></td><td>Defines where the router should send all the traffic that applies to the rule</td></tr><tr><td>Metric</td><td>integer; default: <b>0</b></td><td>The <b>metric</b> value is used as a sorting measure. If a packet about to be routed fits two rules, the one with the lower metric is applied.</td></tr><tr><td>MTU</td><td>integer [64..9000]; default: <b>1500</b></td><td>Sets the maximum transmission unit (MTU) size. It is the largest size of a protocol data unit (PDU) that can be transmitted in a single network layer transaction.</td></tr><tr><td>Route Type</td><td>unicast | local | broadcast | multicast | unreachable | prohibit | backhole | anycast | -- custom -- ; default: <b>unicast</b></td><td>Selects route type. Each type specifies a different behavior for the route:<ul><li><b>unicast</b> -</li><li><b>local</b> - routes of this type are added to the 'local' routing table and used only for locally hosted IPs.</li><li><b>broadcast</b> - routes of this type are added to the 'local' routing table and used by link layer devices that support the broadcast address principle.</li><li><b>multicast</b> -</li><li><b>unreachable</b> -</li><li><b>prohibit</b> - used to prohibit traffic to specified host or network. When a destination is prohibited, the kernel sends a 'Network is unreachable' response the source address.</li><li><b>blackhole</b> - packets that match this type of route are discarded without any response.</li><li><b>anycast</b> -</li><li><b>-- custom --</b> -</li></ul></td></tr></table>
  
 
<span class="asterisk">*</span><b>Additional notes on Target & Netmask:</b>
 
<span class="asterisk">*</span><b>Additional notes on Target & Netmask:</b>
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===Static IPv6 Routes===
 
===Static IPv6 Routes===
 
----
 
----
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Settings for Static IPv6 routes are the same as for IPv4 only that the target IP and and gateway are different.
  
Settings for Static IPv6 routes are the same as for IPv4 only that the target IP and and gateway are different.
 
 
[[File:Networking_RUTX_manual_static_routes_ipv6_v1.png|border]]
 
[[File:Networking_RUTX_manual_static_routes_ipv6_v1.png|border]]
  
 
==Dynamic Routes==
 
==Dynamic Routes==
 
  
 
===BGP Protocol===
 
===BGP Protocol===
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----
 
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[[Image:Network routing dynamic routes bgp general.PNG]]
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[[Image:Networking RUTX manual dynamic routes bgp general v1.png|border]]
  
 
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     <tr>
 
     <tr>
 
       <td>Enable</td>
 
       <td>Enable</td>
       <td>yes | no; Default: '''no'''</td>
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       <td>off | on; Default: '''off'''</td>
 
       <td>Toggles the BGP protocol ON or OFF</td>
 
       <td>Toggles the BGP protocol ON or OFF</td>
 
     </tr>
 
     </tr>
 
     <tr>
 
     <tr>
 
       <td>Enable vty</td>
 
       <td>Enable vty</td>
       <td>yes | no; Default: '''no'''</td>
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       <td>off | on; Default: '''off'''</td>
 
       <td>Toggles vty access from LAN ON or OFF</td>
 
       <td>Toggles vty access from LAN ON or OFF</td>
 
     </tr>
 
     </tr>
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[[Image:Network routing dynamic routes bgp instance.PNG]]
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[[Image:Network routing dynamic routes bgp access list filters.PNG]]
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Revision as of 18:29, 4 December 2019

Summary

This chapter is an overview of the Routing section in RUTX devices.

Static Routes

Static routes specify over which interface and gateway a certain host or network can be reached. In this page you can configure your own custom routes.

Static IPv4 Routes


Below is an example and information about Static IPv4 Routes.

FieldValueDescription
Interfacemobile | lan; default: mobileThe zone where the target network resides
Target*ip4; default: 0.0.0.0The address of the destination network
Netmask*netmask; default: 255.255.255.255A Mask that is applied to the Target to determine to what actual IP addresses the routing rule applies
Gatewayip; default: noneDefines where the router should send all the traffic that applies to the rule
Metricinteger; default: 0The metric value is used as a sorting measure. If a packet about to be routed fits two rules, the one with the lower metric is applied.
MTUinteger [64..9000]; default: 1500Sets the maximum transmission unit (MTU) size. It is the largest size of a protocol data unit (PDU) that can be transmitted in a single network layer transaction.
Route Typeunicast | local | broadcast | multicast | unreachable | prohibit | backhole | anycast | -- custom -- ; default: unicastSelects route type. Each type specifies a different behavior for the route:
  • unicast -
  • local - routes of this type are added to the 'local' routing table and used only for locally hosted IPs.
  • broadcast - routes of this type are added to the 'local' routing table and used by link layer devices that support the broadcast address principle.
  • multicast -
  • unreachable -
  • prohibit - used to prohibit traffic to specified host or network. When a destination is prohibited, the kernel sends a 'Network is unreachable' response the source address.
  • blackhole - packets that match this type of route are discarded without any response.
  • anycast -
  • -- custom -- -

*Additional notes on Target & Netmask:

You can define a rule that applies to a single IP like this:

  • Target: some IP
  • Netmask: 255.255.255.255

Furthermore, you can define a rules that apply to a range of IPs. Refer to the table below for examples.

TargetNetmaskDescription
192.168.2.0255.255.255.240Applies to IPs in the 192.168.2.0 - 192.168.2.15 range.
192.168.2.240255.255.255.240Applies to IPs in the 192.168.2.240 - 192.168.2.255 range.
192.168.2.161255.255.255.0Applies to IPs in the 192.168.2.0 - 192.168.55.255 range.
192.168.0.0255.255.0.0Applies to IPs in the 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255 range.
192.168.2.161255.255.255.255Only applies to 192.168.2.161.


Static IPv6 Routes


Settings for Static IPv6 routes are the same as for IPv4 only that the target IP and and gateway are different.

Networking RUTX manual static routes ipv6 v1.png

Dynamic Routes

BGP Protocol


Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a standardized exterior gateway protocol designed to exchange routing and reachability information among autonomous systems (AS) on the Internet. The protocol is often classified as a path vector protocol but is sometimes also classed as a distance-vector routing protocol. The Border Gateway Protocol makes routing decisions based on paths, network policies, or rule-sets configured by a network administrator and is involved in making core routing decisions.

General Settings


Networking RUTX manual dynamic routes bgp general v1.png

field name value description
Enable off | on; Default: off Toggles the BGP protocol ON or OFF
Enable vty off | on; Default: off Toggles vty access from LAN ON or OFF
Import config - Uploads an external BGP configuration

BGP Instance


Networking RUTX manual dynamic routes bgp instance v1.png

field name value description
Enable yes | no; Default: no Toggles the BGP instance ON or OFF
AS integer: " " AS number is an identification of an autonomous system. BGP protocol uses the AS number for detecting whether the BGP connection is an internal one or external one. [Required]
BGP router ID string; Default: " " The router id is used by BGP to identify the routing device from which a packet originated. Default router ID value is selected as the largest IP Address of the interface.
Network string; Default: " " Add an announcement network(s)

BGP Peers


Networking RUTX manual dynamic routes bgp peers v1.png

field name value description
Enable yes | no; Default: no Toggles the BGP peer ON or OFF
Remote AS integer: " " Neighbour's remote AS
Remote address ip; Default: " " Neighbour's remote IPv4 address

Access List Filters


Networking RUTX manual dynamic routes bgp access list v1.png

field name value description
Enable yes | no; Default: no Toggles the Access filter ON or OFF
Peer bgp peer; Default: first peer on list Applies the rule for the specified peer
Action Permit | Deny; Default: Permit Denies or permits matched entry
Network Any | ip; Default: Any Applies filter rule for this source network
Direction Inbound | Outbound; Default: Inbound If direction is Inbound, the access list is applied to input routes. If direction is Outbound the access list is applied to advertised routes

RIP Protocol


The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is one of the oldest distance-vector routing protocols which employ the hop count as a routing metric. RIP prevents routing loops by implementing a limit on the number of hops allowed in a path from source to destination. The maximum number of hops allowed for RIP is 15, which limits the size of networks that RIP can support. A hop count of 16 is considered an infinite distance and the route is considered unreachable. RIP implements the split horizon, route poisoning and holddown mechanisms to prevent incorrect routing information from being propagated.

General


Network routing dynamic routes rip general.PNG

field name value description
Enable yes | no; Default: no Toggles RIP Protocol ON or OFF
Enable vty yes | no; Default: no Toggles vty access from LAN ON or OFF
Import config - Uses imported RIP configurations
Version 2 | 1; Default: 2 Specifies the version of RIP
Neighbor ip; Default: " " Neighbour IP addres

RIP Interfaces


Network routing dynamic routes rip rip interfaces.PNG

field name value description
Enable yes | no; Default: no Toggles RIP Interface ON or OFF
Interface network interface; Default: no Network interface to be used with the RIP interface
Passive interface yes | no; Default: no Sets the specified interface to passive mode. On passive mode interface, all receiving packets are processed as normal and ripd does not send either multicast or unicast RIP packets

Access list filters


Network routing dynamic routes rip access list filters.PNG

field name value description
Enable yes | no; Default: no Toggles the Access filter ON or OFF
Peer bgp peer; Default: first peer on list Applies the rule for the specified peer
Action Permit | Deny; Default: Permit Denies or permits matched entry
Network Any | ip; Default: Any Applies filter rule for this source network
Direction Inbound | Outbound; Default: Inbound If direction is Inbound, the access list is applied to input routes. If direction is Outbound the access list is applied to advertised routes

OSPF Protocol


Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a routing protocol for Internet Protocol (IP) networks. It uses a link state routing (LSR) algorithm and falls into the group of interior gateway protocols (IGPs), operating within a single autonomous system (AS). It is defined as OSPF Version 2 in RFC 2328 for IPv4.

General Settings


Network routing dynamic routes ospf general.PNG

field name value description
Enable yes | no; Default: no Toggles OSPF Protocol ON or OFF
Enable vty yes | no; Default: no Toggles vty access from LAN ON or OFF
Import - Uses imported OSPF configurations
Router ID ip; Default: " " Sets the router-ID of the OSPF process. The router-ID may be an IP address of the router, but need not be - it can be any arbitrary 32bit number

OSPF Interface


Network routing dynamic routes ospf ospf interface.PNG

field name value description
Enable yes | no; Default: no Toggles OSPF interface ON or OFF
Cost integer [1..65535]; Default: 10 The cost value is set to router-LSA’s metric field and used for SPF calculation
Hello interval integer [1..65535]; Default: 10 Hello packets will be sent at the frequency specified in this field (in seconds)
Router dead interval integer [1..65535]; Default: 40 This value must be the same for all routers attached to a common network
Retransmit integer [1..65535]; Default: 5 This value is used when re-transmitting Database Description and Link State Request packets
Priority integer [0..255]; Default: 1 The router with the highest priority will be more eligible to become the Designated Router. Setting the value to 0, makes the router ineligible to become the Designated Router
Type Broadcast | Nonbroadcast | Point-to-point | Point-to-multipoint; Default: " " Set explicit network type for the specified interface
Authentication None | Password | MD5 HMAC; Default: " " Specifies the authentication mode that should be used for the interface

OSPF Area


Network routing dynamic routes ospf area.PNG

field name value description
Enable yes | no; Default: no Toggles OSPF area ON or OFF
Cost [a.b.c.d]; Default: " " Specifies OSPF area

OSPF Networks


Network routing dynamic routes ospf networks.PNG

field name value description
Enable yes | no; Default: no Toggles OSPF network ON or OFF
Network [a.b.c.d/m]; Default: " " This command specifies the OSPF enabled interface. If the interface has an address from the range a.b.c.d/m then enables OSPF on this interface so the router can provide network information to the other OSPF routers via this interface
Area ospf area; Default: " " Specifies OSPF area